Intel PentiumIntel Corp. this week celebrates 20 years of production of the first microprocessor Pentium family.

Release of these chips was the turning part of the strategy of the world’s largest manufacturer of processors. In fact, after the release of Pentium processor vendors have positioned itself as a brand of the CPU, and not as one of the nodes of a computer system.

Pentium chips have replaced the unnamed Intel processor 486. Following the logic of the corporation, Pentium chips would have called 586, but marketers Corporation concluded that the release of chips under the original brand would be the best publicity move. And they were right. Corporation was able to patent the Pentium chips as a trademark, as with anonymous 486 that was to be done. Simultaneously with the release of Pentium, the corporation has established a well-known logo Intel Inside, indicating the presence of processors from this company.

Initially (22 March 1993) was presented only two models based on the core P5 at 60 and 66 MHz. Were later released and more efficient processor Pentium, based on the improved kernels. Also, presented a mobile version and CPU Pentium OverDrive. The first Pentium chips manufactured on 800-nm technology and contain 3.1 million transistors. For comparison, the current Core i7 are available on the 22-nm technology and have 1.4 billion transistors.

The first Pentium chips have the support of so-called superscalar architecture x86, as well as built-in support for ALU module allows you to perform two instructions per clock cycle. It also has been implemented much faster, compared to the 486 block of floating-point processor, and although he was a 32-bit, it can work with 64-bit system bus and faster to work with the memory cache.

Tests first Pentium models have shown that 66-MHz model is almost twice as productive 66-megahertz chip 486DX2, to ex fastest Pentium.

At Intel, says the company has taken 15 years for the processors to increase the frequency from 5 to 66 MHz. And another 15 years to improve the performance of chips from 66 to 2500 MHz.

In October 1993, was released the second generation Pentium processors. Was originally released model with a clock frequency of 75 MHz. Processors manufactured on 600-nanometer bipolar BiCMOS-technology, which reduced the size of the crystal to 148 mm? (Kernel contained 3.2 million transistors) and reduce power consumption up to 10.1 watts (for Pentium 100). Power supply was also reduced to 3.3 V, the current consumption of the processor is 3.25 A. The processor was manufactured in 296-pin CPGA and installed in Socket 5 and Socket 7 and was not compatible with Socket 4. These processors improved system SMM and added Advanced Programmable Interrupt Controller APIC.

In the second-generation Pentium processors use clock multiplication, it is faster than the system bus. To specify how many times the core clock speed of the processor over the system bus, using a multiplier. All processors, based on core P54C, the multiplier is 1.5.

The first processors based on the more advanced core P54CS, was released March 27, 1995. In fact, it is a kernel P54C, made using 350-nanometer bipolar BiCMOS-technology, which reduced the size of the crystal nucleus to 91 mm? (Pentium processors 120 and 133), but soon, as a result of optimizing the kernel, its size was reduced to 83 mm? with the same number of transistors. At the same Pentium 200 Supply current of 4.6 A, and the maximum dissipation (heat) is 15.5 Tues

January 8, 1997 were issued processor Pentium, P5 based on the core of the third generation (P55C). Centre for Development and Research Intel in Haifa (Israel) in the core P55C was added a new set of instructions, called MMX (MultiMedia eXtension), significantly increases (from 10 to 60%, depending on the optimization) computer performance in multimedia applications. As a result, these processors are called Pentium w / MMX technology (usually shortened to Pentium MMX).

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