Lennart Poettering introduced the system manager systemd release 198, a remarkable addition utilities bootctl, systemd-activate and kernel-install, support for SSL in systemd-journal-gatewayd, the ability to manage limited resources on the fly, support overriding options unit-file through the creation of individual files in a directory, the ability to use one boot partition for different distributions.

Systemd combines the functions of the system initialization mechanism to control the background process, a service for logging events and facilities management services, sessions, users and connected devices. To determine the parameters of services used in Systemd unit-set of configuration files, rather than processing scripts in a shell-script. The system aims at intensive parallelization service execution at boot system, having incorporated the best features of systems such as launchd (Mac OS X), SMF (Solaris) and Upstart (Ubuntu, older versions of Fedora). At present, the use of systemd already switched distributions like Fedora, openSUSE, Mandriva, and Arch Linux.

Among the most interesting features include:

– Added support for overriding the individual elements of the configuration files, or unit-unit-add files by creating additional files in the directory associated with the service. This possibility to change settings without directly modifying the unit-file;

– Additional configuration files are created as “/ etc / systemd / systemd / foobar.service.d / *. Conf” and loaded after processing unit-file, ie may supplement or override them. Previously, to make changes to unit-had to copy the required files from the directory unit / usr / lib / systemd / system / in / etc / systemd / system / and there to make any changes or create a new file in / etc / systemd / system / and connect it to the existing unit-file through the directive “. include”;

– To provide the ability to dynamically change the settings on the fly based on resource constraints cgroups for all unit-files. For example, without any interruption of service can change the limit command, similar to “systemctl set-cgroup-attr foobar.service cpu.shares 2000.” After the change of command will be saved to disk and will continue to operate after the restart the service;

– In the list included nspawn container capabilities added purpose and CAP_AUDIT_WRITE CAP_AUDIT_CONTROL, allowing easier loading in insulated container of unmodified Fedora (says that Fedora still need to load with the transmission in the nucleus parameter audit = 0 due to the observed problems in system operation audit);

– In nspawn new options “- bind =” and “- bind-ro =” to mount inside the container specified external directories. In addition, nspawn now installs its own container FS devpts, avoiding leakage pty-device from the host system;

– In reading systemd provided EFI-variables with information about the performance of the boot process, provided firmware. After loading this information can be analyzed using the tool “systemd-analyze”. New feature now works only when using a boot Gummiboot, but in the future may be implemented for other downloaders;

– Added a new generator, which automatically mounts the ESP-partitions (EFI System Partition) to the directory / boot;

– The composition includes a new utility bootctl with implementation of the interface to perform some operations with the loader. Currently bootctl has the status of the experimental design for the initial acquaintance. In the future, it is possible the creation of a demon-like timedated, localed and hostnamed, which can be used in GUI-configurator to list the available boot options and initiate a service mode boot firmware;

– New utility kernel-install, designed for installation of the kernel according to the specification Boot Loader;

– New utility systemd-activate, which can be used to test and debug the activation daemon through a socket;

– Added a selection of unit-files to simplify the adaptation of systemd in images initrd. These unit-s is added to the minimum necessary systemd logic implementations from different initrd;

– Dropped support for outdated or specific names of individual distributions LSB-properties defined in the analysis of init-scripts: $ x-display-manager, $ mail-transfer-agent, $ mail-transport-agent, $ mail-transfer-agent, $ smtp, $ null. Since more systemd does not support scripting early initialization, you also ignored the properties and $ syslog $ local_fs;

– Added the ability to reset the configuration of scheduled individual unit-files by assigning them to an empty value. For example, earlier assignment Environment = FOO = BAR resulted for each use to add new variables to the list of environment variables. Specifying “Environment =” Now you can pre-clear the list of environment variables.

– The above is useful in conjunction with the above system configuration override “. D / *. Conf”, because it can be used to override the specified files in the unit-of lists of variables;

– In systemd-journal-gatewayd added support SSL. Systemd-journal-gatewayd now runs under a separate non-privileged user systemd-journal-gateway: systemd-journal-gateway;

– The environment files such as / etc / locale.conf, now supports merging of lines carried over from the use of the backslash (“\”);

– The utility systemctl added new command “list-dependencies” to recursively display the dependency unit-file;

– Added “systemctl unlock-sessions”, allowing time to unlock the screen all user sessions, about the same as running a total lock “systemctl lock-sessions”;

– Greatly expanded the collection to test the unit-files;

– In the command udevadm hwdb added option “- root =”, allows you to specify the root directory relative to which operations are performed;

– Component systemd-bootchart relicense and now comes under the license LGPLv2.1 + as the whole package;

– Support Policykit can now be enabled / disabled at build time;
Systemd-analyze tool rewritten in C and incorporated functionality command “systemctl dot”;

– Running “systemctl status” with no parameters now display the overall status of all active and faulty unit-s;

– Python API module expanded to read files from the magazine;

– In journalctl added options: “- reverse” (-r) to display the contents of the log from the back sorting (new entries above); “- pager-end” (-e) to go to the end of the log without paging output less; “- user-unit =” – analog “- unit =”, showing only user-unit-s;

– Files that magazines are now placed under a separate group “systemd-journal”, created exclusively to provide access to journals. Previously, the owner files with the magazines was a group “adm”, which is used not only for access to the logs, now access “adm” and the wheel “to the files / var / log / journal is appointed by ACL, and is the direct owner of the group” systemd-journal ” ;

– In systemd-detect-virt added support for defining the Xen guest paravirtualization mode;

– File system pstore now installed by default if it is available in the system;

– In addition to the rules and SELinux IMA, early loading is now done and loading rules SMACK.

ANNOUNCE systemd 198: http://lists.freedesktop.org/archives/systemd-devel/2013-March/009496.html

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